Ginkgo biloba, maidenhair tree, fossil tree - Philippine Herbal Medicine - An illustrated compilation of medicinal plants in the Philippines by Dr Godofredo Stuart, with botanical information, chemical properties, folkloric uses and medicinal research studies. There is nothing traditional about GBE or its use. This is when the active ingredient – ginkgoflavonglycoside – is at its highest concentration. Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 9 m (29ft) at a slow rate. Contact with the fleshy drupe pulp can cause allergic dermatitis similar to that caused by poison ivy.De Smet 1997 Case reports of seizures associated with ginkgo supplementation existGranger 2001; however, ginkgo extracts have been shown to exhibit both anti- and proconvulsant activity in animal experiments.Jahanshahi 2012, Lee 2012, Data have been reported regarding the carcinogenic potential of G. biloba extract, with increased mitosis and cell proliferation observed in some,Wang 2017 but not all, rodent studies.Fernandes 2010, Grollino 2017, Limited clinical studies have also produced equivocal findings. The report will display the kingdom and all descendants leading down to the name you choose. Some trials included in the meta-analysis were of small sample size, and treatment duration was less than 3 months in each of the studies.Birks 2009, The effect of G. biloba on cognitive function in healthy individuals was examined in a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2012, which concluded that no positive effect was evident for memory, executive function, or attention in 13 studies involving more than 2,500 participants.Laws 2012, Multiple other systematic reviews have been published, with many including subgroup analyses.Butler 2018, Cicero 2018 Clinical studies involving commercial industry generally report greater improvements in cognitive and neuropsychiatric measures.Gavrilova 2014, Ihl 2011, Napryeyenko 2007, Savaskan 2018, Von Gunten 2016, Yancheva 2009, A number of guidelines have been published on the use of ginkgo in Alzheimer disease and dementia. On the impotence front, Gingko is seen as an impotence aid because it increases circulation, to the brain and to points further south. The plant is native to Far East Asia – China, Japan and Korea and Common Ginkgo, Duck’s Foot Tree, Gingko, Gingko Biloba, Gingko Nuts, Golden Fossil Tree, Kew Tree, Maidenhair Tree are few of the most common names of this plant. Ginkgo should be used with caution during pregnancy, particularly around labor due to risk of prolonged bleeding time, and should be avoided during lactation.Dugoua 2006 An animal study of pregnant rats treated with ginkgo 7 to 14 mg/kg/day reported reduced fetal body weights,Pinto 2007 while another study found no evidence of embryotoxicity.Fernandes 2010, At recommended doses, standardized preparations of ginkgo leaf extract are unlikely to exhibit any clinically important interactions.Bone 2008, Unger 2013 Caution may be required with use of raw extracts of the leaf with anticoagulants, although evidence from controlled studies consistently indicates that ginkgo does not impact hemostasis.Bone 2008, At higher than recommended dose levels, weak induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP-450) 2C19- and weak inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated metabolism has been observed, as well as a limited effect on drug transporters.Unger 2013 Case reports of treatment failure implicate ginkgo, including in a 41-year-old man receiving antiretroviral therapy with efavirenz and taking a G. biloba 300 mg/day supplementNaccarato 2012; other studies suggest no interaction with raltegravir.Blonk 2012, The availability of unregulated or nonstandardized products, as well as potential interactions of supplements with pharmaceutical medications, must be considered when using ginkgo.Yadav 2014, Agents with antiplatelet properties: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of agents with antiplatelet properties. Common name: Ginkgo Latin name: Ginkgo biloba Other names: Maiden Hair, Buddha’s fingernails, Flying Moth Leaf, Duck-foot Family: Ginkgoaceae Habitat: The plant is native to northern China. In the days of lifestyle drugs that are used to prevent problems and increase the quality of life, gingko is coming into its own. The GEM study (N=3,069 elderly men and women) preplanned an evaluation of cardiovascular outcomes and found no evidence that ginkgo 240 mg/day reduced total or cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular events.Kuller 2010 A statistically significant positive finding was obtained for ginkgo in peripheral vascular disease; however, the number of events was too small to make any generalizations.Kuller 2010 Similarly, ginkgo did not reduce blood pressure in hypertensive or normotensive participants in the GEM study.Brinkley 2010 A 2009 Cochrane meta-analysis of 14 clinical trials evaluating the role of ginkgo in intermittent claudication found no evidence of a clinically important benefit in patients with peripheral arterial disease; the 2013 update reinforced this conclusion.Nicolaï 2009, Nicolai 2013 The American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines for the management of peripheral artery disease (2005/2011) state that the effectiveness of ginkgo in improving walking distance for patients with intermittent claudication is marginal and not well established (level B evidence).Anderson 2013, A Cochrane systematic review of studies to 2005, including 10 trials (N=792) assessing the efficacy of ginkgo, found no convincing evidence to support the use of ginkgo for recovery after stroke or for improvement in neurological deficit at the end of treatment.Zeng 2005, In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N=102), significantly more patients in the ginkgo group achieved a 50% reduction in 4-month poststroke follow-up National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score compared with baseline than those in the placebo group (58.6% vs 18.5%, respectively; P<0.05).Oskouei 2013 In contrast, multivariate regression analysis of the trend of NIHSS scores from admission to follow-up revealed a significant decline in scores for G. biloba when adjusted for age and gender (P<0.05).Oskouei 2013. Ginkgo is probably one of the most resistant trees to environmental pollution, insects and disease. Arenz A, Kelin M, Flehe K, et al. Information regarding safety and efficacy in pregnancy and lactation is lacking. Improves Circulation and Heart Health. G. biloba extract was determined to be no more effective than placebo.Meston 2008 Canadian Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists revised clinical practice guidelines on managing menopause (2014) do not recommend ginkgo for reducing menopausal symptoms, based on a lack of evidence supporting clinical benefit.Reid 2014, Small studies suggest efficacy in treating migraine; however, methodological limitations (eg, open-label design, multi-ingredient preparations tested) do not allow for extrapolation of the findings.Allais 2013, Studies in rodents suggest that antioxidant and vascular effects of ginkgo may have a role in glaucomaHirooka 2004, Wimpissinger 2007 and cataractogenesis prevention.Khedr 2018, Limited clinical studies have reported positive findings with G. biloba use in patients with glaucoma.Harris 2018, Kang 2018, Ritch 2005, In rats with induced osteoporosis given ginkgo for 30 days, bone mineral density was improved.Lucinda 2017, Protective effects were observed in a study of rats with induced periodontitis administered G. biloba extract.Freires 2018, Publication of clinical trial data makes available animal studies of tinnitus less relevant, except to establish a mechanism of action.Dogan 2018, Esen 2018, A Cochrane meta-analysis of 4 clinical trials (N=1,543) conducted up to March 2012 in adults with tinnitus, either as the primary complaint or as a component of cerebral insufficiency, showed no evidence that supplemental ginkgo was effective. GBE has been shown to have potentially harmful interactions with some pharmaceutical drugs (MAO inhibitors). The name Ginkgo comes from the Japanese words gin, “silver”, and kyo, “apricot” and refers to its silvery apricot like fruit. Ginkgo biloba, also called maidenhair, is the name of a tree that’s native to China. Photo by Katherine Wagner-Reiss. You should talk with your health care provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this product. Senility patients do notice an improvement after a few weeks. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. The Ginkgo originally comes from China. Some meanings behind the word Ginkgo, “silver apricot”, and biloba, two-lobed”, which comes from a Japanese origin. Ginkgo biloba Common Name: Ginkgo, maidenhair tree. The European Federation of Neurological Sciences guidelines on the management of Alzheimer disease (2010) state that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of ginkgo for primary prevention of dementia, and that ginkgo should not be used in the treatment of patients with mild cognitive impairment. Evidence is lacking to support a protective role in cardiovascular conditions and stroke. General Information: The Ginkgo is the last member of a family of trees common in prehistoric times, and was, in fact, thought to be extinct in the wild until rediscovered in the 17th century in eastern China. Standardized ginkgo leaf extracts such as EGb 761 have been used in clinical trials for cognitive and cardiovascular disorders at daily doses of 120 to 240 mg.DeKosky 2008, Kuller 2010, Snitz 2009 Extracts are usually standardized to 24% flavones and 6% terpene lactones.DeKosky 2008, Snitz 2009 Ginkgo is commercially available in several doseforms, including teas, liquids, colas, capsules, extracts, tablets, sprays, and bars. It is strictly cutting edge herbal medicine. Avoid products that contain other herbal remedies. Ginkgolic acid and related alkylphenols from the lipid fraction of the fruit pods have been reviewed. This is a columnar ginkgo, meaning its growth habit is narrow and upright. View abstract. The flavonoids act as free radical scavengers, and the terpenes (ginkgolides) inhibit platelet-activating factor. Common Name(s): maidenhair tree [English] common ginkgo [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted ... Ginkgo biloba : Source: NODC Taxonomic Code, database (version 8.0) Acquired: 1996 : Notes: Reference for: Ginkgo biloba, maidenhair tree [English] Consider therapy modification.Mousa 2010, Spolarich 2007, Stanger 2012, Ulbricht 2008, Salicylates: Ginkgo biloba may enhance the anticoagulant effect of salicylates. Available for Android and iOS devices. If I was worried about memory, I would make myself acquainted with this herb product. Bleeding may occur. The GEM study found no effect of ginkgo in reducing the incidence of dementia or in preventing decline in cognitive impairment among enrolled older adult participants with normal to mild cognitive impairment.DeKosky 2008, Snitz 2009 Similarly, in the GuidAge study, long-term use of standardized ginkgo extract had no effect on the risk of progression to Alzheimer disease compared with placebo.Vellas 2012, In the Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use (ICTUS) study (N=828), 96.5% of patients received cholinesterase inhibitor therapy alone and 3.5% received ginkgo in combination with cholinesterase inhibitors. The characteristic bilobed fan-shaped leaves are the source of most ginkgo herbal remedies. Its leaves and seeds have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Other medicinal constituents of ginkgo include shikimic, vanillic, ascorbic, and p-coumaric acids. Ginkgo was once very common in Northern America and parts of Europe, but after the Ice Age only survived in China. Ginkgo has been studied extensively in diverse medical conditions. Family: Ginkgoaceae. Genus: Ginkgo. Ginkgo taken orally may be unsafe during pregnancy. Ginkgo biloba is a deciduous conifer (a true gymnosperm) that can mature to a whopping 100' tall. Ginkgo biloba 'Mariken' Ginkgo biloba 'Mariken' Common name: Mariken Ginkgo . Mariken Maidenhair Tree. Occurrence of neurotoxic 4'-O-methylpyridoxine in ginkgo biloba leaves, ginkgo medications and Japanese ginkgo food. It is also known as the maidenhair tree because of the resemblance of its bilobed leaves to those of the maidenhair fern. Ginkgo biloba is an herb used to treat altitude sickness (prevention), cerebral vascular insufficiency, cognitive disorders, dementia, dizziness/vertigo, intermittent claudication, macular degeneration/glaucoma, memory loss, premenstrual syndrome, SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction, and as a vasodilator.. Documented increases in cerebral blood flow (greater effect in patients 50 years and … This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from your health care provider. Roasted ginkgo seeds were consumed in ancient China and Japan and were considered a digestive aid and preventive agent for drunkenness. In fact it is so old that the Often referred to as a ‘living fossil’, the Ginkgo tree links us to the plant world of over two hundred million years ago. The genus name Ginkgo is regarded as a misspelling of the Japanese gin kyo, “silver apricot”. A standardized extract containing 24% ginkgoflavanglycosides and 6% terpene lactones (ginkgolides and similar compounds) should be used daily taken three times a day. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: … Concerns persist regarding the safety of ginkgo leaf extract, based on studies in rodents that suggested increased mitosis and proliferation of tumor cells, as well as the large Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory (GEM) study in which the potential for an increased risk of certain cancers was noted. After 3-month ingestion of G. biloba extract in one study (N=20), significant (P<0.001) increases in fasting plasma levels of insulin and C-peptide, and in insulin and C-peptide area under the curve (AUC) were observed after a 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The seeds and leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for asthma and circulatory disease. Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon: No. End result? It is classified in its own division Ginkgophyta, class Ginkgoopsida, order Ginkgoales, family Ginkgoacae, genus Ginkgo and only the one species (G. Some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1,500 years old. No changes in glucose tolerance were observed.Kudolo 2000 In a follow-up study of type 2 diabetes patients taking oral hypoglycemic agents, ginkgo increased pancreatic beta cell function in response to glucose loading.Kudolo 2001 Over a 3-month period, the pharmacokinetic properties of metformin 500 mg once daily were not affected by coadministration of 120 mg of ginkgo.Kudolo 2006 Ingestion of 120 mg/day of standardized ginkgo extract for 3 months did not produce insulin resistance in nondiabetic and prediabetic populations, nor did it exacerbate the disease in type 2 diabetic subjects.Aziz 2018, Kudolo 2006, Evidence is lacking regarding the role of gingko in the management of menopausal symptoms or sexual function in women.Reid 2014, Wheatley 2004 Clinical trials with small sample sizes have produced varying and equivocal results regarding effects of ginkgo on sexual function.Ashton 2000, Boone 2005, Oh 2006, Ozgoli 2009, Wheatley 2004 In one study (N=99), G. biloba extract had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo. Going out and picking leaves or buying dried leaves at the health food shop is probably a waste of time! Indeed, evidence suggests that GBE has the ability to boost brain function on a number of physiological levels. Findings from large trials have been pivotal in evaluating the efficacy of G. biloba extracts; however, there is not enough quality evidence to support the use of ginkgo for any indication. It might cause early labor or extra bleeding during delivery if used near that time. Bleeding may occur. Common Name(s): 'Bryson City' Ginkgo; Ginkgo; Maiden Hairtree; Phonetic Spelling GING-ko bi-LOW-buh This plant has low severity poison characteristics. Scientific Back Up GBE has been shown to sharpen memory, boost concentration, lessen the distressing symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, and improve circulation to the extremities. Ginkgo biloba is a large, deciduous tree that matures to 100' tall and is considered to be a living fossil. G. biloba extract was tested on the plasma of salvage personnel; after 2 months of treatment at 120 mg per day, plasma clastogenic factors regressed or completely disappeared.Eli 2006, Emerit 1995 An anticlastogenic effect was demonstrated for ginkgo versus placebo in patients with Graves disease who were receiving radioiodine therapy.Dardano 2007, Animal studies report efficacy in preventing cardiovascular conditions, and researchers have attempted to explain the mechanisms by which the extract may act.Abdel-Zaher 2017, Jiang 2017, Li 2009, Tang 2017, Wu 2008 Antiplatelet activity has been described, although evidence from controlled studies consistently indicates that ginkgo does not significantly impact hemostasis.Bone 2008. For memory loss due to poor circulation or Alzheimers’ Disease, herbalists recommend daily use of GBE. This is only a brief summary of general information about this product. Avoid products containing Gingko leaves. Alternatives Hawthorn(Crataegus monogyna). Monitor therapy.Naccarato 2012, Robertson 2008, Sustiva 2013, Wiegman 2009, Zadoyan 2012, Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties): Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties). In the Western world, ginkgo has been used since the 1960s, when technology made it possible to isolate its active compounds. Danish: Tempeltræ. The edible inner seed resembles an almond and is sold in Asian markets.USDA 2018, WHO 1999, The ginkgo species almost became extinct during the last ice age that began approximately 2 million years ago. Consumption of the seeds may induce a toxic syndrome. Results of 2 large clinical trials have been published: the GEM study (N=3,069) and the GuidAge study (N=2,854). Ginkgo pollen can be strongly allergenic. Findings from large trials have been pivotal in evaluating the efficacy of G. biloba extracts; however, there is not enough quality evidence to support the use of ginkgo for any indication. turmeric, saw palmetto, garlic, echinacea. One study (N=47) reported no increase in liver injury markers or genomic measures (micronucleus frequency, comet assay, c-myc, p53, and ctnnb1 expression profile in lymphocytes).Bonassi 2018 In an analysis of cancer as a secondary end point in the 3,069 participants of the GEM study, no protective effect of ginkgo was observed. Family: Ginkgoaceae. In a Word: Keep Your Marbles Plant Uses: Senile dementia, Alzheimer’s, Poor Memory. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. See below Description. It is common in the southern third of the country. Ginkgo biloba . Botanical name: Ginkgo biloba: Family: Ginkgoaceae belong to the class of the Ginkgophytes. For site-specific cancers, there were nonsignificant trends towards an increased risk of breast (hazard ratio [HR], 2.15; 95% CI, 0.97 to 4.8; P=0.06) and colorectal (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.92 to 2.87; P=0.1) cancers, and a reduced risk of prostate cancer (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.17; P=0.18).Biggs 2010, Antioxidant effects of G. biloba extract were studied in Chernobyl nuclear accident recovery workers with clastogenic factors evidenced as DNA fragmentation and damage. It is the only surviving member of a group of ancient plants believed to have inhabited the earth up to 150 million years ago. Fresh (raw) or roasted ginkgo seeds and the unprocessed ginkgo leaves can contain dangerous amounts of a toxic substance. Ginkgo biloba is a prehistoric tree, it disappeared from the North American fossil record about 7 million years ago and has since been introduced from a country or countries. Aging does not take a day off, and for this reason, we shouldn’t take a day off from GBE. The widespread use of G. biloba extracts in clinical trials makes data from animal studies largely redundant. The species survived in China, where it was cultivated as a sacred tree, and it still decorates Buddhist temples throughout Asia. It remains unclear whether ginkgo has a role in reducing the incidence of dementia in elderly patients or protecting against decline in cognitive function. Ginkgo is one of the most commonly prescribed medications in Europe, but it is not approved for medical use in the United States, where it is sold only as a nutritional supplement.Mohanta 2014, WHO 1999, Reviews of the chemical constituents of ginkgo have been published. Native to (or naturalized in) Oregon: No. Laboratory research indicates that through this process GBE sends more blood to the brain and to the body’s extremities. Bleeding may occur. There is seasonal variation in active compound content of the leaves, with the highest amounts present in autumn.Liu 2015, Ude 2013, van Beek 2009, The seed portion of ginkgo contains carbohydrate (38%), protein (4%), and less than 2% fat. Additionally, data do not support enhanced cognitive function resulting from G. biloba use in healthy individuals. The 3 major flavonoids of ginkgo are quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. Severe adverse reactions are rare; possible reactions include headache, dizziness, heart palpitations, and GI and dermatologic reactions. It works in the short term and in the long term. Pharmacokinetic testing of ginkgo doseforms, including capsules, drops, and tablets, has been conducted. The fleshy layer and pulp have a foul, offensive odor and can cause contact dermatitis. Consider therapy modification.Mousa 2010, Spolarich 2007, Stanger 2012, Ulbricht 2008, Midazolam: Ginkgo biloba may decrease the serum concentration of midazolam. Type: Broadleaf. Common name: Maidenhair tree (living fossil). The extract of the Ginkgo biloba tree increases blood flow to the brain. Brought back to America at the end of the 18 th Century, the Ginkgo tree can now be found across America, planted as an ornamental tree often in the same soil where previous trees failed. The dioecious ginkgo is the world's oldest living tree species. The name Ginkgo comes from the Japanese words gin, “silver”, and kyo , “apricot” and refers to its silvery apricot like fruit. Again, the key to Ginkgo biloba extract’s (GBE) activity is improved blood flow. The leaves of the Ginkgo tree, the part used in herbal medicine, are harvested in early autumn before they start to fall. GBE has an immediate effect and a long term effect. It is important to fully inform your doctor about the herbal, vitamins, mineral or any other supplements you are taking before any kind of surgery or medical procedure. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Its incredible adaptability explains why it is still around and the dinosaurs are fossils! The easiest way to lookup drug information, identify pills, check interactions and set up your own personal medication records. Maidenhair fern leaflets (pinnae) look like miniature versions of ginkgo leaves, leading to the common name of maidenhair-tree for Ginkgo biloba. And you can choose the growth habit, size, and other characteristics by selecting from among several types of ginkgo tree: Fairmount. Consider therapy modification.Mousa 2010, Spolarich 2007, Stanger 2012, Ulbricht 2008, Anticoagulants: Herbs (anticoagulant/antiplatelet properties) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of anticoagulants. The Ginkgo tree is the sole surviving species of the family Ginkgoaceae and is the world’s oldest living tree. Last updated on Dec 10, 2020. Fire up blood flow Older people, those with poor circulation, and those that live in extremely cold climates find that gingko warms them up. Ginkgo trees are commonly called maidenhair trees in reference to the resemblance of their fan-shaped leaves to maidenhair fern leaflets (pinnae). Rates of discontinuation because of lack of effect were similar between groups; however, more donepezil patients discontinued because of adverse effects.Rapp 2018, A Cochrane meta-analysis (published in 2009 and including 36 trials) found that results lacked consistent evidence of clinically important effects on dementia or cognitive impairment. Consumption of approximately 50 ginkgo seeds has produced convulsions in a 21-month-old child, and consumption of 70 to 80 seeds induced tonic-clonic seizures and loss of consciousness in a 36-year-old woman.Benjamin 2001, Hasegawa 2006, Miwa 2001 Between 1930 and 1960, 70 reports of poisoning related to ginkgo ingestion revealed a 27% mortality rate, with infants being the most vulnerable. Dangerously cold hands and feet medical procedures 3 months to experience major benefits, and cause... With certain health and medical conditions, other prescription and over-the-counter drugs, foods, or other dietary.! 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