TNAU Notes pdf can be easily downloaded by clicking on the below provided links. The adult weevils are black-coloured and measure 23-39 mm. The snails, which live up to six years in favourable conditions, The infestation was found to be intense in areas with high population density. Disc-on-stump traps can be used for trapping weevils. A biological control agent (a parasitoid) was originally established in Torres Strait in 1992 by DPI&F entomologists from Brisbane. Lecture 18 - Banana: Lecture 19 - Guava: Lecture 20 - Apple: Lecture 21 - Brinjal: Lecture 22 - Chillies: Lecture 23 - Cucurbits: Lecture 24 - Cruciferous Vegs. Adult - Grey coloured with dark spots on the pinkish hind wings. One or two applications of dormant oils should be applied to suppress established overwintering populations. The adults over-winter on citrus or non-crop native or exotic ornamentals, and start to move into lychee and longan orchards in spring when the trees flower. Footwear, which may have contacted banana plants or soil around banana plants elsewhere, should not be worn on the farm. For more detailed information, click the links below : Rhizome weevil: Cosmopolites sordidus Hard scale: Aspidiotus destructor Pseudostem borer: Odoiporus longicollis Fruit rust thrips: Chaetanaphothrips signipennis Banana aphid: Pentalonia nigronervosa f. typica Castor hairy caterpillar: Pericallia ricini Tingid or Lace wing bug: Stephanitis typicus These are derived from iron phosphate, copper sulphate and aluminium sulphate. The front margin of the wings is made up of a fringe of black hairs and, when at rest, these give the adult thrips a characteristic longitudinal black stripe down the middle of the abdomen. Irrigation protects the plants from termite. Nymphs – are yellow colour, occur in under surface, Adult – yellow colour with minute fringed wings, seen in under surface of leaves, Collect and destroy the damaged leaves, flowers and fruits along with life stages, Spraying with dimethoate 30 EC - 850 ml/ha or phosphamidon 85 WSC - 300 ml/ha, Spray methyl demeton 25 EC 2ml/lit or monocrotophos 36 WSC 1ml/lit. These turn a reddish-brown to maroon colour as the fungus grows through the tissues. the vegetative phase is phytotoxic and should be discouraged. Spray Bordeaux mixture 1 per cent + linseed oil 2 per cent on the plants. 5 images. Leaves and fruits. Yellow and purplish spots in the sub marginal areas.Â. Removal of pistil and perianth by hand immediately after the fruits are formed. Worldwide, banana production is affected by numerous diseases and pests. The upper portion of the peduncle is exposed to the hot sun, when the bunch emergence occurs during summer months and due to reduced functional leaves reducedÂ. The pupal stage lasts 7-10 days Dipping the suckers in 20% neem seed solution at planting. Adult: This treatment completely coated the set in a persistent nematicidal preparation. Life expectancy is commonly five or six years in captivity, but the snails may live for up to ten years. Very high populations may result in defoliation, loss of production and in severe cases, death of the plant. Natural enemies - Predatory ants such as the bigheaded ant (Pheidole megacephala) and Tetramorium spp  feed the eggs, grubs and pupae of weevils. Grub period is 20 to 25 days The sets should be soaked for a few seconds in 550 ml DBCP plus 40 litres of clay for sets disinfection. Later on, the centre of these spots turns to light grey colour surrounded by yellow halo, The spots often coalesce to form large irregular patches of dried tissue, Rapid drying and defoliation of leaves are the characteristic feature of this disease, Normally 15-18 leaves are necessary at the time of shooting for bunch development, but due to Sigatoka leaf spot it is difficult to maintain 15 leaves, In severe cases, immature bunches fail to fill outÂ, The fingers of bunch in affected plants tend to remain undersized and angular but pulp starts ripening, This disease is caused by Mycospharella musicola fungus by the characteristics of the conidia and conidiophores, The conidiophores are bottle shaped and bear conidia. Biological Control. Control. Caterpillar scraping the chlorophyll content and windowing in unfurled leaves. Apply castor cake 250g or carbaryl 50g dust or phorate 10g per pit before planting also prevents infestation. Hyphae are septate and hyaline.  Conidiaphores are short and simple and having macroconidia and microconidia. Identification of pest. TNAU Agritech Portal :: Crop Protection. Adult - Female circular, semi transparent and pale brown. Death of unopened pipe, withering of outer leaves. straints. Macroconidia usually produced abundantly, slightly sickle-shaped, thin-walled, with an attenuated apical cell and a foot-shaped basal cell. In loamy and light soils in dry areas where proper facilities for irrigation are not available, the termite infestation is more serious. The planting tools should be cleaned before being used in the field, Well decomposed manure should be used, Grow marigold in the inter space which serves as repellent and trap crop, Covering the field for 6 to 8 weeks with plastic after tilling and watering raises the soil temperature. Removal and destruction of affected leaves. Yellow and purplish spots in the sub marginal areas. Banana is otherwise called ‘Apple of Paradise’. Application of D-D @ 300 l / ha and EDB @ 150 kg / ha significantly controls the nematodes and increases the yield but is costly. Zapisz się teraz Oświadczam, że zgadzam się na przetwarzanie moich danych, aby otrzymywać mailem oferty oraz informacje o produktach Beauty firmy Banana Beauty GmbH sp. This in combination with leaf damage reduces the plant's ability to photosynthesise and results in loss of plant production.Whiteflies can multiply at a great rate, producing thousands of individuals on a single plant, when natural biological agents are not present. It  has a long life span and many adults live for  a year. Conidiophores are solitary or in small groups. They are not toxic to humans and animals (In organic culture, consult your certification body before use), Feeding injury on young banana bunches and fingers. Keep the banana field as weed free and remove the suckers timely. The infested fruits get spotted and their flavour is affected. MApps C-DAC Hyderabad. Bio-control: Pathogenic nematode infecting white grub. The pathogen is easily spread by infected rhizomes or suckers, farm implements or vehicles, irrigation water, Practice proper crop rotation with paddy/sugarcane once or twice followed by banana for 2-3 cylces, Plant wilt resistant cultivars  such as Poovan and Nendran in endemic areas. The banana aphid is a significant pest of banana and acts as vector for virus causing banana bunchy top virus (Hu et al. It originated in the Caribbean region of Central America, and spread rapidly through the Pacific after gaining establishment in Hawaii in 1978. They appear to be “bunched” at the top of the plant, the symptom for which this disease is named. It nests in burrows, gulches, rock piles, rock walls, wastelands, fields, and embankments.  It causes great damage to sugarcane, banana, pineapple, coconuts, coffee, and other fruit and vegetable crops. As symptoms progress into the pseudo-stem, continuous lines of discolouration are evident when the plant is cut longitudinally. Hind wings - white having a brown patch along the margin. Pupal period is 5 to 7 days  Here are the most common: Nematodes – Nematodes are a common banana plant pest. Infected fruits become black and rotten. The disease is soil borne and the fungus enters the roots through the fine laterals. Injection needle should reach only 2 or 3 leaf sheaths and without touching the centre core. Grub: ... Standard Operating Procedure for Integrated Pest Management . Application of bio control agents like Trichoderma viride @ 25 g for 4 times once at the time of planting in the planting pit and remaining doses at third, fifth and seventh month after planting, Application of T.harzianum Th-10, as dried banana leaf formulation @ 10g/platn in basal + top dressing on 2,4,and 6 months after planting, Dipping the planting materials in spore suspension of P.fluorescens at 10g per plant at 3,5 and 7 months after planting, Machinery and equipment should be treated with a  sanitary solution such as Farmcleanse®. Infestation of the weevil normally starts in 5 month old plants. Water is required for the bacteria to invade into the plant. The above discussed subject along with the disputed pictures were sent to National Research Centre for Banana, Trichy also for re … Banana Pest and Disease Management Tamil. Pupation takes place in holes bored by the grubs. This pathogen contains colonies of white to purple pigemented mycelium. Collect and destroy the affected plant parts, Spray application of monocrotophos 36 WSC 0.04%. Larva: The wingless creamy white larvae are smaller but have the same shape as the adult. The pseudostem weevil O. longicollis is a specific pest of banana and reported as a major pest from India, Bangladesh, Burma, SriLanka and Indonesia (Dutt and Maiti, 1970). The Indo-Malayan region is believed to be the place of origin. Virus is disseminated by suckers and Aphis gossypi. Aphid excretion of “honeydew” provides a nutritional substrate for sooty mold fungi, which affects fruit quality and physically block photosynthesis. A single sac contains several hundred eggs. Use of rhizomes with dead central buds and active lateral buds prevents the appearance of the disease. Severe attack dimethoate, methyl demeton, or phosphamidon may be sprayed around the collar region. The abdomen is often darker than the head and thorax. The nematode enters the roots as well as corms and causes usually induce reddish brown cortical lesions which are characteristic feature of the disease. Pests and diseases that affect the banana industry are listed below. Practice crop rotation by using crops that are not susceptible to the bacterial rot disease like soyabean, forage legumes and small grains. are the largest herbaceous perennial plants in the world. Banana stumps kept in the field after harvest must be removed and destroyed as they serve as weevil refuges and breeding sites, Blackened mass coming out from pseudostem, Pale yellow streaks on the upper surface of leaves, Centre of the spots turns to grey colour, Microscopic view of Mycospharella musicola, Apply mud slurry mixed with neem oil 5% on the pseudostem five month after planting in heavily infested areas to prevent oviposition, Closely monitor the plants for the detection of oviposition punctureszxzsxz, Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit. Do not produce bunches. Use of calcium arsenate and Metaldehyde under expert supervision in areas of high infestation. Bunch covers (which cover the full length of the bunch) do provide some protection if applied very early. Pupa: white and about 12 mm long. Application of DBCP @ 40 l / ha at planting time (May and June)  and 2.5 l / ha in October gave excellent control of nematodes (Luc and Vilardebo 1961). Carbofuran granules @ 20 g should be applied at the time of planting, 2nd and 4th month after planting. Application of over 100 g or neem oil was phytotoxic (harmful to plants) and uneconomical. Many students always searches about TNAU study material and TNAU agriculture notes but they didn't get it because of some misleading sites. Anthracnose; … Nematode survive in the soil in the absence of suitable hosts, Lesion nematode – Their life cycle takes less than 20 days when temperatures range from 25 degree C – 30 degree C. Spiral Nematodes  are robust with strong stylets. The head is reddish-brown with strong mouthparts. It is an obligate-outcrossing hermaphrodite, which means that one externally fertilised snail can establish a population . All these problems contributed to a new way of thinking concerning pest control practices, i.e. Conidiophores are cylindrical, tapered towards the apex, hyaline, septate, branched and sub-hyaline towards the base, each with a single terminal phialidic aperture. White Grub are mainly observed during rainy season in nursery. The nematode causes very thin lesion on the roots. Field release of coccinelid predators like, Spray 0.07%. attack both adults and grubs in the field. Steinerma and Heterohabditis spp. The infestation of termite is more in rabbi season. 1 kg neem cake, 200 gm nitrogen, 40 gm phosphorus, 200 gm potassium per plant, 4 weeding at 2 months interval up to 8 months stage, Spraying Methyl Demeton 0.03 per cent (0.3 ml/lit of water) at 3 to 4 weeks interval controls the vector and reduces the spread of the disease, Foliar spray of micronutrient (0.2% CuSo4(2ml/lit), 0.2% FeSo4(2ml/lit), 0.5% ZnSo4(5 ml/lit) and 0.1% H3Bo3(1 ml/lit of water) at 3,5 and 7th month after planting and spraying Glyphosate 2Kg per hectare to control weeds, Control of insect vector by spraying Phosphomidon at 1 ml per litre or methyl demeton at 2 ml per litre or monocrtophos at 1ml per litre. Infestation begins at the base of the outermost leaf-sheath and in injured tissues at the lower part of the pseudostem. Fumigation of banana plants using Remove infected plants immediately. Examine plants for live scales by crushing the wax cover. Puthunagaram, Kodumbu, Peruvembu, Mundur, Puthuppariyaram, Marutha Road, Kannadi, Koduvayur, Chittur-Thathamangalam, Mathur, Pirayiri, Vadavannur and Thenkurissi are some of the vulnerable areas in the district, Giant East African Snail has a narrow, conical shell, which is twice as long as it is wide and contains 7 to 9 whorls when fully grown. Since scale insects may occur on all plant parts, every part of the plant must be checked. The nymphs and adults congregate under the outer base of the pseudostem, Aphids always accompanied by ants, which act as dispersing agents of nymph, Honey dew secretion appears on the plants which attracts the ants, The aphids suck the sap of the plant and reduce the growth and vigour, They also act as a vector of Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV). The formic acid, with a pH of 2-3, burns the tender skins of the young fingers, leaving irregularly shaped, blackened areas on the fruits that expand as the fruits expand. Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts, Spray application of azinphosethyl, chlorphyriphos and monocrotophos, Severe infestation – spot application of Bt, Foliar spray with avanthe 1 ml in 100 ml of water, Field release of entomopathogenic fungus,Â. They are free living, they are most commonly found between leaf sheaths, in the soil at the base of the mat or associated with crop residues. Instead of Monoctophos the suckers may be dipped in clay slurry and sprinkled with Carbofuran granules at 40g/corm, Soil drenching of Carbendazim 0.2 per cent solution alternated with Propiconozole 0.1% around the pseudostem at bimonthly intervals starting from five months after planting, Application of urea + sugarcane trash (250g/pit) followed by lime (1Kg/pit) and neem cake (1-2Kg/pit), Application of neem cake @ 250 Kg/ha was most effecgtive in controlling Fusarium wilt in Rasthali cultivar. Application of Furadan 3G @ 20 gms or Phorate 10g @ 12 gms or neem cake @ 1/2 Kg. Early symptoms of the infestation are the presence of small pinhead-sized holes on the stem, Fibrous extrusions from bases of leaf petioles. Malathion insecticide on banana seedlings. Termites feed on cellulose in the roots of seedling. Banana bunches should be harvested at correct stage of maturity. Several banana pests and diseases have caused significant yield losses across production landscapes [5] and are a significant threat to global food security. They eventually turn a bright yellow colour with dead leaf  margins. Newly emerged weevils are red brown, turning almost black after a few days. They are borne at the ends of tapering phialides, aggregated into rounded, mucilaginous translucent heads. The incubation period ranges from  3 to 8 days.Â. Insecticidal control is not recommended as overseas experience indicates that spraying with insecticides has little long-term impact on the pest and may exacerbate the pest problem by destroying the biocontrol agents. Bunches, pseudostem and the suckers should be sprayed chlorpyriphos, Soil application with Fipronil and Bifenthrin, Nymph and adult suck the plant sap and inject toxic saliva in the tissue. The young grubs after hatching in the soil headed towards the roots and start feeding on them. Survival and spread. Larval tunnels may run for the entire length of fallen pseudostems. About 60 mg of Pseudomonas (in a capsule) can be applied in a 10 cm deep hole made in the corm. These include TNAU probe trap, TNAU pit fall trap, two in one model trap, indicator device, Automatic insect removal bin, UV-light trap technology, Egg removal device and Stack Trap. Banana should not be grown along with onion and other vegetables.Â. Novel and rapid methods for the timely detection of pests and diseases will allow to surveil and develop control measures with greater efficiency. Caterpillar scraping the chlorophyll content and windowing in unfurled leaves. Root and rhizome necrosis is manifested by the retarded growth, leaf yellowing and falling of mature plants. Without its natural predators it has assumed major pest status. Regular checking of fruit under the bunch covers is essential to ensure that damage is not occurring. Provide mechanical barriers in and around the infected plants, Initially, appearance of pale yellow or greenish streaks parallel to the veins on the upper surface of the leaves. They have six segmented antennae and prominent dark veins Eggs: Laid at random on cut ends of pseudostem, yellowish-white, cylindrical in shape Grub: Apodous, creamy white with dark brown head Pupa: Pale yellow colour, fibrous cocoon formed inside the tunneling on the periphery Adult: Robust, reddish brown and black weevil Sep08-Aug09 Rs.5.00: S.K.Manoranjitham. Rolling of leaf margins, twisting and bunching of leaves at the crown and a rigid erectness in newly emerged leaves, The presence of dead or drying suckers is noticed in advanced cases referred as heart rot resulting from rotting of heart leaf and central portion of pseudostem, Primarily infected banana plants develop severe mosaic symptoms in young growth showing broadly streaked chlorotic or yellowish green bands and patches or chlorotic mottling distributed in patches over the leaf lamina, The leaves are narrower and smaller than normal and the infected plants are dwarf and lag behind in growth. Stem injection with Monocrotophos solution (150 ml in 35o ml water) using stem injector at 2 and 4 feet above ground level at 30 degree angle on either side of the plant. Later on feed voraciously at night on the foliage. Before planting, the suckers should be dipped in 0.1 per cent quinalphos emulsion. Drench with Methoxy Ethyl Mercuric Chloride (Emisan-6) 0.1 / or Sodium hypochlorite 10% or Bleaching powder 20g /litre/tree. Total annual world production is estimated at 86 million tonnes of fruits. They often confine themselves within the pseudostem and in the decomposing tissues of harvested pseudostems. When only 1-3 plants are infected, kill and chop up the diseased plants and stew all the material in water at a temperature of at least 70 deg C for 30 minutes. For a complete list of exotic pests of banana, contact Australian Banana Growers’ Council for a copy of the industry biosecurity plan. This is an ecto as well as endo – parasite. Roots eventually blacken and die. Provide proper drainage and avoid water logging in the fields which favours infection. In field the disease spread mainly through suckers, The diseased plants should be removed as and when noticed to avoid the spread of the disease, Disease free planting materials should be used for new planting, The banana gardens should be kept free from weeds, Weeds in the nearby areas should be removed as the virus survives in them in off-season, Early detection by regular inspection of planting and eradication of diseased plants from the field as soon as they are noticed. CO-PI: 68: Standardization of mat system of cultivation for continous harvest of banana Cv.Grand Naine: TNAU-NADP-Precision farming One year. Use healthy and pest free suckers to check the incidence, Do not dump infested materials into manure pit. Vector of bunchy top disease. Pesticides. Keep the longitudinal split banana traps @ 100/ha. Use of pheromone trap @ 25 traps /ha to destroy the weevil populations. Later on feed voraciously at night on the foliage. Control. The lesioning of primary roots together with girdling and death of anchoring roots leads the plant prone to ‘tip over’ under wind pressure. As a result of infestation, the leaves get dry and seedling can easily be pulled out. Fully-grown grubs are about 12 mm long. In case of severe infestation the plants may fall off on slight push by hand or wind. The affected tissues are corrugated and covered with fungus conidiophores and powdery grey conidia resembling ash on a cigar end. Externally, the first obvious signs of disease in most varieties are wilting and a light yellow colouring of the lower leaves, most prominent around the margins. Egg: elongate-oval, about 2 to 3 mm long and white in colour. Larva - Black with brown head having long brown hairs. The weevils can be collected by hand and destroyed. Regular checking of fruit under the bunch covers is essential to ensure that damage, Bunches, pseudostem and the suckers should be sprayed chlorpyrifos, Field release of coccinelid predators like lacewings, ladybird beetles. Banana stumps kept in the field after harvest must be removed and destroyed as they serve as weevil refuges and breeding sites; Crop rotation with non host crops like paddy and sugarcane. Spray soapy water or insecticidal soap  on plants thoroughly on petioles, furled leaves, whorls or on young suckers, Spray Dimethoate (75ml/100lit) or Diazinon (1.5ml/lit) or Acephate (1.3g/lit) on infested plants and suckers, Spray Methyl Demeton 25 EC 0.05% or Monocrotophos 36 SL 0.072%, Inject Monocrotophos 36 SL 1 ml/plant (1ml diluted in 4 ml of water). Dependent on the temperature, the babies will hatch in anything from 5 to 21 days. Banana cultivation ranges from small backyard plantings to large plantation production. Damage is mainly caused by the sap-sucking immature and adult whiteflies that feed on the underside of the foliage. TNAU Agritech portal is no exception and the mistakes pointed out by this blogger was corrected in their website immediately (within 12 hours). Warm and moist conditions favour the disease occurrence and the disease spread is high in old and badly maintained plantations. Banana is one of the oldest and most popular fruit. Grubs bore into the rhizome and cause death of the plant. Pests of banana leaves nematode that like bananas as much as we do TNAU study and. And later adults feeds on the lower surface of the weevil normally starts in month. Removal of pistil and perianth by hand and destroyed high populations may result in defoliation, loss of production in! 10G @ 12 gms or neem oil was phytotoxic ( harmful to plants ) and Indonesia ( )... 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