The virus kills susceptible varieties. or by attacking them when they are exposed above ground. Adult weevils also, cause damage by feeding on the leaves, vines and underground storage roots. Seed becomes infected, internally through the flowers (the stigma) and resistant spores (called oospores) develop on the seed coat. differences, varieties resistant to SPVD in West Africa became severely diseased when grown in Uganda. the main central vein. The LGB is distributed across countries and regions, through the import and export of infested grains. These diseases differ in the patterns of yellow and green on the leaves, but all cause. Although often discussed together there are key, differences between these two virus diseases. Check with local seed, companies or retailers if open-pollinated varieties with grey leaf spot tolerance are available. Aphids (greenfly) (order Hemiptera family Aphididae) Macrosiphum rosae – Likely to be found on new shoots and buds, aphids are soft bodied insects 1-2 mm long. Many varieties have now been bred for different types of resistance to anthracnose. The common species of witchweed in Africa are. potential vectors but this must be done before populations increase and at the early stages of the insect life cycle. Advanced mosaic and distortion of leaves on an, Although chlorotic (yellow) areas are well developed, the limited leaf distortion suggests infection via, development and reducing growth and yields. stem dieback of young shoots, blackening of older foliage and reduced tuber yields. Sorghum midge has been recorded in almost all sorghum producing regions of the world. The pest has also been recorded in many other countries: Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, confirmed at the time of writing), Uganda, T, Check the Africa Rice website for papers, extension leaflets and up to date information. There is concern that some species are continuing to spread in Africa. The legume pod borer causes the most damage to beans, The legume pod borer is found throughout the tropics and subtropics, especially in East and West Africa, but cannot. The disease is spread in cuttings, which may, be symptomless, and by whiteflies. CABI Crop Protection Compendium: http://www.cabi.org.ezproxy, Striga hermonthica. than 100 metres. Survival of bacterial leaf blight between crops is not well understood. Note, the resistance of many hybrids is based on, single genes; there is always a possibility that the rust will overcome the resistance. Cultural practices, such as using clean planting material, planting early in the. Pests & Diseases. An outbreak in Malawi in the mid-1990s affected 3500 hectares and is estimated to have destroyed 800 hectares. Photo: Donald Hobern, Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY. Insecticides can kill the, : Late blight of potato, caused by a fungus-like organism, is a constant threat wherever, Late blight resistant varieties are available such as Asante and Tigoni in Kenya, Meru, T, Late blight is a devastating disease, one which takes advantage of any opportunity to infect and, Remove infected tubers and piles of potatoes rejected after harvest to minimise carryover of the, : Rats and burrowing mole rats both attack sweet potato, but rats are the more serious, A major difficulty with managing rats and mole rats is that farmers mostly wait until they see damage, (commonly known as fish bean) randomly throughout the field and along the. of blast. The mite can easily be spread from one place to another on leaves, and cuttings of the plant, and by wind. The most distinctive symptom of CBSD is a dry rot of the tubers. Rainfall linked to germination of wild, grass seeds is used to predict likely growth in flocks and to plan early control interventions. Small milky drops of liquid (bacteria) ooze from the streaks, later drying as a crust on the leaves. However, Brown sunken spots with dark margins caused by. Pesticide, containers should never be reused for other purposes. IITA R4D Review, all over Africa. The traps are particularly beneficial if placed along fences. In this case, the farmer will not know what the pesticide is, how it should be used or whether it is out of date. (http://mtvernon.wsu.edu/path_team/, FS038E-CommonBacterialBlightAndHaloBlight.pdf), Another useful article from the US looks at common blight, halo blight and other bacterial diseases of beans in the, most important area for bean production. caused by fungi that produce dark spots on leaves, petioles, stems and fruit. Many of the CMD-resistant, the spread of CMD in fields. Following harvest, larvae that are still, in the grain enter into diapause where they can remain resting for up to 3 years. The field and storage diseases are presented, anthracnose is regarded as the most widely spread of all the field diseases, while yam mosaic virus disease is considered to cause the most severe losses in yams. : Groundnut rust is a relatively new disease to Africa, becoming widespread only, After harvest, all plant debris should be collected and destroyed, or used as fodder, Carry out regular inspections, at least twice a week, and spray when plants are first seen with, : Anthracnose of cowpea is a fungal disease affecting stems, branches, and leaf and, The best way to manage the disease is by planting anthracnose-resistant varieties, It is very unlikely that fungicides would be economical for the control of this disease, or that, Do not plant next to already infected crops, otherwise the new planting will be infected at an early, Note IITA has developed varieties with combined resistance to several viruses, bacteria, fungal diseases, nematodes and insects, including, : Cercospora leaf spot is a fungal disease. (ftp://192.156.137.116/ipgri/Publications/pdf/502.pdf). The disease is important in Eastern and Central Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda) and also in Brazil. The bacteria survive in plant debris, volunteer bean plants, weeds and seeds. IPM often involves the combination of several different options. The beetle eats. Chlorothalonil controls both leaf spots and. However, varieties, and in most districts of Uganda and Kenya virus symptoms only occur in 10-20% of plants, with about a fifth to a, third of those infected with both SPFMV and SPCSV. This, in turn has resulted in loss of an important staple food, increased market prices because of reduced supply and loss, of genetic resources as growers abandon the crop. Spores are spread long, distances on air currents and wind. Particular attention should be given to training. For a recent review of bunchy top virus and overview of the disease: sub-Saharan Africa: Investigations on virus distribution and diversity, eventually kills it. Survival of the downy mildew occurs as growth inside the seed and as oospores. Planting in widely spaced rows that run parallel to the prevailing wind enables the leaves and pods to dry as quickly as, During the growth of the crop, apply a mulch to prevent soil from splashing onto the plants during heavy rains. especially harmful. Early in the season, before the storage roots are formed, the adults are often found on the plant leaves and vines, leaving small round feeding, holes; if disturbed they will drop to the ground and hide. These galls are the distinctive ‘onion’ or silver shoots which are associated only with gall midge damage. : Bean anthracnose is a fungal disease primarily of the common bean. After harvest, collect, vines and burn, bury or compost them. effective way to reduce damage is to plant cowpea varieties with known resistance to the main virus diseases, such as BlCMV, Advanced, non-specific mosaic symptoms: this could, Mosaic viruses can also reduce and distort growth –. flexibility to delay planting or to grow alternative, non-cereal crops. lack of evidence to support seed transmission of the fungus, the justification for this is not clear-cut. Seeds can also be infected from the spots that develop on the pods. significant losses in yield. The disease is managed by using certified or approved seed. Laboratory testing is essential if the precise identification of viruses is required, for example in phytosanitary regulation. Both types of fungi produce dark spots, roughly circular and up to 10 mm diameter on the leaves. Mancozeb can also be used. When the larvae bore into the Napier, Striga, a parasitic weed. There have been regular epidemics since 2002 in a number of countries. the first place; (ii) establish methods for early detection; (iii) observe strict hygiene measures; and (iv) use resistant varieties. Powdery mildews are caused by true fungi, which are controlled by different types of fungicide. Rots continue in storage and can lead to complete decay of the tuber as other rot-causing organisms take, Sometimes external symptoms are not obvious on the tubers. Genetic Resources, Rome. Crop Protection Compendium (www.cabi.org/cpc) and Plantwise (www, Mycotoxin fact sheets: http://bit.ly/1O3OVWh ‘T, great concern because plants are killed and little or no grain is produced. Empty containers should be rinsed three times with water and, punctured with a sharp object. Once. imported rice, maize); (iii) larger than expected long-run price transmission parameters in world and neighbour countries for rice and coarse grains suggest that, in these select markets, there are either large transactions costs or quality premiums that vary systematically with border prices, and/or mark-ups captured by traders with market power. has been reported that attacks are more severe near villages where the stems are used for this purpose. The females lay eggs inside the eggs of the, Locally made inexpensive pheromone bait traps can be placed in and around the field to disrupt the, The use of insecticides, such as dimethoate, is impractical, and rarely justified due to the costs, : The sorghum midge is one of the most important pests of sorghum. If certified or approved seed is not available, and there is no information on resistant varieties, Use a 2-3-year rotation between crops of beans on the same land if anthracnose is established in, It is very unlikely that fungicides would be economical for the control of this disease, or that they, is the asexual state, producing small cylindrical spores on leaves, stems and pods, that are pale, , and other food legumes. (http://www.cabi.org.ezproxy. Control, methods include spraying fenthion, an organophosphate, but this also kills non-target birds and, the pesticide needs careful handling. There are as yet no witchweed-resistant millet varieties. They remain viable in the soil for many years, germinating in response to chemicals from the roots of potential host plants. The main symptoms of CMD are patches of discoloured (chlorotic) areas on leaves, which vary from light green to yellow, accompanied by distortion of leaves, often severe. It occurs from Senegal in West Africa, across the semi-arid zones towards Nigeria and then east towards Ethiopia and Somalia, but no further north, and down, There are many published sources of information on quelea, available via a basic Google search. If required in commercial. Clark CA, Davis JA, Abad JA, Cuellar WJ, Fuentes S, Kreuze JF. Original publication date February 2008. Cowpea is an important protein source in sub-Saharan Africa. Native to the neo-tropical areas of Brazil and South America, the cassava green mite was introduced into Uganda in. seen with the naked eye. Further information on fungicides is available from various sources listed below. Other advice includes removing. P, legume flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti (T, Oparaeke A.M., 2006. they form bands of dead areas several centimetres wide, on either side of the midrib, and the leaves collapse and die. and leaves, and neem oil are also reported to be effective against the larvae and eggs. throughout the entire plant, then leaves, wilt, dry up and die – a symptom common on transplanted seedlings, known as ‘kresek’ (an Indonesian word). Also, protect the harvest in storage from rat infestations. (faecal matter) on the outside of the pods. Often green but occasionally light brown, and sometimes with wings, they may cover (in a colony) the complete growing tip of the plant. Fusarium wilt can remain alive in soil for long periods – perhaps indefinitely – as resistant spores, in. Control of insects attacking ears will reduce fungal ear infections. All banana types are susceptible, though research has produced, some promising results for future resistant varieties. On young leaves, small dark brown spots with yellow margins that expand rapidly, as leaves approach full size. cowpea), cereals, vegetables and weeds. Populations of midge begin to build-up at the, start of flowering. Spores formed in the spots are spread in, rain-splash or by wind and rain. Making best use of advisory services and extension workers is part of a. balanced strategy to improve early detection and responses. When the plants are young, before the, storage roots form, the larvae mainly feed on the lower base of the stem, leaving small tunnels. In Nigeria. Originally restricted mostly to the coastal regions of T, and neighbours, an outbreak of this virus disease in the Great Lakes region in 2003 has since, spread, particularly at higher altitudes (>1000 masl), to other countries in East and Central, Africa. In some plants the young leaves die before they have expanded, producing a ‘dead heart’. The, The disease is spread over short distances by airborne spores and is also carried on wind-driven rain. In East Africa, it was first introduced into T, then it has spread to Burundi, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Zambia, South Africa and most likely, other countries in the region. production occurs, the disease is particularly common in the humid forest agroecological zone. The resistant spores (the oospores) develop. introduction of infected planting material across large areas. Remove weeds from within and around the plots. Fruit Fly. Feeding marks on the funnel leaves, ‘dead heart’ and holes in the stems. The only solutions are to: (i) keep it out in. 237-241. been significant and poses a major threat to countries in East Africa and beyond. The stalk borers are more attracted to Napier grass than maize and so the border of Napier, grass will pull the moths away from the maize to lay their eggs on the Napier grass. resistant and tolerant varieties are available from suppliers in the local area. using a hot water treatment are the next best options. ‘Seed’ yam producers should always choose tubers this way. droppings (faecal matter) left behind by the larvae as they bore into the pod. infected planting material in East and Central Africa. Do not dry directly on the ground. If. parasitise cowpea, maize, sorghum, millet, sugarcane, upland rice and wild grasses. As the disease develops, the characteristic thick white cottony fungus grows above, ground, and round to oval, 0.5-2 mm, tan to brown sclerotia develop in it. The Sensitivity of Flower Bud Thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti T, on Cowpea to Three Concentrations and Spraying Schedules of Piper guineense Schum. Later they become bronze to, spores on the lower surface of the leaf giving the spots a distinctive grey to dark powdery appearance. If direct seeding (no-tillage or zero tillage) is the preferred method of cultivation, grow legume cover crops before, planting the maize; suitable crops are lablab, velvet bean or sunhemp. 152 p. adult beetles burrow into the soil and feed on the tubers. The rice gall midge is a flying insect pest, the larvae of which feed on the growing tips of new rice shoots. Bean common mosaic virus is transmitted through seed and by a number of aphid species. There are biological control options for the bean flower thrips. CABI Crop Protection Compendium. Witchweed seeds are probably spread long distances on the wind, along with soil. The caterpillars typically feed on the buds, flowers, grains, fruits and pods, but will also feed on the leaves and stems. CABI Crop Protection Compendium. programmes, controlling weeds and on-farm selection of healthy plants as ‘seed’. A combination of infected. The more extensive the development of leaf symptoms, the. but during dry or cold periods it can be up to 6 months (as they stop developing and remain in stems or plant debris). Some kill the plants, others weaken them or reduce the yield in some way. lower leaf surface; not usually surrounded by yellow halo. arthropods such as ants) are being tested and developed and may provide more options in the future. Witchweed seeds are tiny: each plant produces hundreds of thousands. After harvest, collect and burn or plough back the diseased crop to destroy the aphids. It is possibly the most common and destructive of the more than 30 viruses that naturally infect beans. First, it is important to remove and destroy crop residues immediately after harvest. the pyralid moths have already caused damage and the yams have lost moisture. The, spores (aeciospores) that develop in these cup-shaped protruding structures on the underside of the leaf infect pearl, Long distance spread is on the wind. retailers before purchasing. Bore holes and caterpillar dropping (frass) can often be seen on the plant. Many species cause huge damage. In more severe cases, the foliage shows shoe-string symptoms: leaves are long. makes tubers unfit for eating and sale. This is known as. Stunted plants and plants displaying early withering of leaves should also be inspected for larvae. Some strains of sorghum downy mildew also attack maize. New Kawogo is particularly popular because of its tolerance to SPVD. Learn a process for diagnosing plant health problems, including signs and symptoms of diseases, pests and insects, and environment or management issues. Monitoring for the weevil early in the crop season is important. small holes in straight lines on young leaves. small grain crops presents a more vulnerable target. The main control methods are. Amusa NA, Adegbite A.A, Muhammed S, Baiyewu RA (2003) Yam diseases and its management in Nigeria. It is present throughout. At, the end of the rainy season, they migrate from the field back to a breeding site by rivers and swampy areas. When new cassava is planted at the same time as harvesting mature plants, machetes and pangas can spread the, Cassava leaves are an important food in many countries and bacterial blight greatly limits their availability, of cuttings to grow can be catastrophic; in the early 1970s a serious outbreak in Zaire led to starvation when up to 75%. Dispose of the containers following the local laws and regulations. CABI Crop Protection Compendium. Some pests cause direct damage, such as quelea birds which feed on millet crops; other pests do not cause damage, directly but can carry harmful micro-organisms such as fungi, bacteria or viruses. from other types of damage. Prior to planting, plough and harrow the field to destroy pupae. reduce the number of eggs laid by adults. The adult moths are slightly smaller than the other two species of stem borers. Providing habitat to attract and preserve these natural enemies is an important strategy for controlling the, Therefore, if pesticides are used, they should be applied before the caterpillars bore into the pods or fruit of the plant. Julius-. Rice growing in northern Zambia showing symptoms, Rice yellow mottle virus causes this disease, which is of great economic importance. Only. However, Sorghum downy mildew is most damaging when it infects roots and results in systemic infections. This manual is an output of the African Soil Health Consortium (ASHC), a project managed by CABI. . multimammate rat have seen more damage in weedier plots of rice; the same may hold true for sweet potato. Some performed well and have shown, stable anthracnose response across different agroecological zones; for example TDa 87/01091, TDa 95/00197, TDa. National Diagnostic Protocol for Rice Blast on rice only: caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. particularly vulnerable to this disease as they are long-season types, giving the fungus more time to damage them. Control of the pest can. Chemical treatment with copper-containing pesticides, applied at the first signs of the disease, : Early and late leaf spots, caused by the fungi, , are severe diseases of groundnuts worldwide. occur in all countries in Africa where cowpea is grown. However, bean seed schemes, its impact in many countries has declined. Journal of Biotechnology 2(12):497-502. the disease, such as Uganda, heightens the risk of banana bunchy top virus to a vital food crop. The major pests and diseases of root and tuber crops, Leaf petiole and stem blight disease of sweet potato, 7. 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